# Different password

Each account must have a different password. It's never the same password on unsafe sites like Facebook and something important, such as online banking.

# Passwords

If your password is less than ten characters, a mixture of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers and symbols, then it is not strong enough. It should never be a name, a birthday or any information about anyone or anything around you. An example of a strong password is something like "C + M # T_on

# Usernames complex

Most of people  have e-mail address or name as your username? Rookie Move evil. You should make a user name as a password so complex. Many WordPress blogs are created by the username "admin" as hackers are already 50% of the road. Change username and not something complicated.

# Updated anti-virus software

You need an updated version (or two) of recent anti-virus and anti-spyware. Some are free like AVAST or KESPERSKY as paid. And an update automatically.

# End Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, versions of Safari

Do not just ignore that update requests from the browser, do it now. Some of these updates are in the safety of their products. In fact, up to date on what is the more secure browser and use only. Hello Chrome?

# Use Facebook and e-mail safely the correct URL

Will connect to Facebook. Come on, do it. Now see that the URL "http://" or "https"? If the former, then you are not in a secure session. Go into your settings and make sure to always use https, and when you log on any site be sure to write "s" if you are logged in.

# Do not use public Wi-Fi

You know when you go to a cafe and connect to the network free? Well, take a look at how easy it is for people to steal your passwords, email and Facebook with a simple plugin for Firefox. It's really sad that this exists. I can not use Wi-Fi.

# Do not send passwords or store important information online or offline

Do not send in online security to all. Especially through chat or e-mail. If someone has been noticed in your account can see what you're doing. If you want to send passwords for employees, family members, etc. Then call them on the phone. Avoid storing passwords on your hard drive as it is also very easy to use.

# Make your security questions difficult

You know, these security issues as "what is the maiden name of your mother?" So, make the complex answers. For example, in one of mine, I choose the pet name first and then respond to a complex password. If you ever hacked, you need this information to regain access to the account. You do not want a hacker to change that.

All Backup #

You must be ongoing to save the contents of your hard drive, email and blog to an external hard drive. If the worst happens and someone deletes the content of the blog you can return without too much trouble. Imagine if you were based on a web site for entry and all that was removed?

# Do not use your computer administrator account

Most people use the administrator account, it gives you the freedom to add programs, etc, but did you know that using a non-administrator account can slow the spread of a virus?

# Monitor your sites connected

If you go to the bottom of your Gmail account, you will see a small line of text that says "Last account activity". This shows you your account has been accessed from, so if you suspect that something is wrong, you should watch and record the IP of the unknown.

# Use phishing filter

This can help you identify if someone is running a phishing scam in which to show what is safe.

 Do not click links in emails

In general, most banks and financial institutions will send you emails with links. Never click on any email you receive. If you really believe it is call your bank instead.


Hello friends,Now i m going to tell you about legit money making survey site called worldmos.well,its registered & 100% legal.
Its fundamental is very simple:


Memory Performance Tweaks

There are several memory settings can be done with Windows XP - they are all located in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SYSTEM \ CurrentControlSet \ Control \ Session Manager \ Memory Management

part of the register.

Disable Paging Executive

With normal use. XP pages sections from RAM to disk, we can stop this and to keep the data in RAM, resulting in better performance. Note that only users with large amounts of RAM (256 +) should use this setting. The setting we want to go to disable the 'Paging Executive', as it is called, called DisablePagingExecutive. Change the value of this key 0-1 memory paging will be disabled.

System Cache Boost

Change the value of the key 0-1 LargeSystemCache tell Windows XP to allocate all but 4MB of memory for file system cache, basically means that the kernel of XP can run the memory, which improves its speed. 4 MB of memory available for disk caching, but if for some reason, needs to be done, XP allocates more. In general, this tweak improves performance a bit, 'but may in some intensive applications, degrade performance. As above tweak, you should have at least 256 megabytes of RAM before taking LargeSystemCache groped.

Input / Output Performance

This tweak is really valuable to anyone running a server - it improves performace while a computer is running large file transfer operations. The default is not displayed in the registry, so you'll need to create a REG_DWORD value called IoPageLockLimit. The data for this value is in bytes and defaults to 512KB on machines that have value. Most people using this tweak have found maximum performance from 8 to 16 megabyte range, so you have to play with the value of the search for the best performance. Remember that the value is measured in bytes, so if you want, say, 12MB allocated, it is 12 * 1024 * 1024 or 12582912 e As with all the memory settings, you should use this option if you have 256 MB of RAM or more.

How To Increase Browsing Speed

Speed ​​up browsing

When connected to a site, the computer sends information back and forth. Some of this information deals with resolving the site name to an IP address, things that TCP / IP really is, and not words. This is DNS information and is used so you do not have to ask the location of the site each time you visit the site. Although Windows XP and Windows XP have a pretty efficient DNS cache, you can increase your overall performance, increasing its size. You can do this with the registry entries below:

Windows Registry Version 5.00

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetServices EsDnscacheParameters]

"CacheHashTableBucketSize" = dword: 00000001

"Cache hash table size" = dword: 00000180

"MaxCacheEntryTtlLimit" = dword: 0000fa00

"MaxSOACacheEntryTtlLimit" = dword: 0000012d

Create a new text file and name it dnscache.reg. Then copy and paste the above and save it in there. Join in the registry.

Installing Windows XP in 10 Minutes

We all know that, after loading the file or copying the file from the boot disk for system temporary space requires a reboot first.

Now if we press Shift + F10, then Task Manager opens and we discover that a process running called setup.exe

Now our task is to make the priority of this process by right-clicking MAXM.

We did.

Find ur XP installed in 10 minutes with a tolerance of 2 minutes.

improve Windows XP performance

Iden defragment the disk does not do much to improve Windows XP performance, here are 23 suggestions please. Everyone can improve performance and reliability of 'computers' clients. Moreover, most of them cost nothing.

. 1) To reduce the boot time of a system and increase system performance, you can use the money you save by not buying defragmentation software - the built in Windows defragmenter works very well - and instead equip the computer with a Ultra-133 or Serial ATA hard disk 8 MB cache

2nd) If a PC has less than 512 MB of RAM, add more memory. This is an upgrade easy and cheap that can improve system performance.

3) Make sure Windows XP is to use the NTFS file system. If you are unsure, here's how to check: First, double-click My Computer, right click the C: drive and click Properties. Therefore, to analyze the file system, if it says FAT32, then copy all your important data. Next, click Start, Run, type cmd, and then click OK. At the command prompt, type convert c: / FS: NTFS and press Enter. This process may take some time, it is important that the computer be uninterrupted and virus. The file system on a bootable disk is FAT32 or NTFS. I recommend NTFS superior security, reliability and efficiency of larger disks.

4) Delete the file indexing. Indexing Service extracts information about documents and other files on your hard drive and creates an "index of keywords for search." As you can imagine, this process can be quite taxing on any system.

The idea is that the user can look up the word, phrase, or property inside a document, if hundreds or thousands of documents and not know the name of the document that "they want. Windows XP has a built-in search functionality can still perform these searches without the Indexing Service. It just takes longer. The operating system should open each file a request for help finding what you're looking for.

Most people never need this search tool. Those are usually a large company with thousands of documents can be found in at least one server. But if you're a typical system builder, most customers are small and medium-sized enterprises. And if customers do not need this search function, I suggest you delete it.

Here's how: First, double-click the My Computer icon. Then right-click the C: drive and select Properties. Uncheck "Allow Indexing Service to index this disk for fast file searching". Then, apply the changes to "C: subfolders and files" and click OK. If a warning or error message (such as "Access Denied"), click Ignore All.

5) Updating the PC video drivers and motherboard chipset. Also update and configure the BIOS. For more information on how the BIOS properly, see this article on my site.

6.) Empty the Windows Prefetch folder every three months. Windows XP can "prefetch" portions of data and applications that are used frequently. This makes processes appear to load faster when called by the user. That's fine. But over time, the prefetch folder may become overloaded with references to files and applications are no longer in use. When this happens, Windows XP is wasting time and decreases system performance, by pre-loading. Nothing major in this folder and all its contents are safe to delete.

7e) Once a month, run a disk cleanup. Here's how: Double-click the My Computer icon. Then right click on drive C: and select Properties. Click Disk Cleanup - right next to the pie chart on the ability - and delete all temporary files.

8 °) in the Device Manager, double-click the IDE ATA / ATAPI devices and ensure that DMA is enabled for each drive that is connected to the primary and secondary controller. To do this, double click on the primary IDE channel. Then click the Advanced tab. Make sure the transfer mode is set to "DMA if available" for device 0 and device at a time, then repeat the process with the secondary IDE channel.

9e) upgrade the wiring. As hard drive technology improves, the cabling requirements to achieve these increases results become more stringent. Be sure to use Ultra-son 80 133 cables in all IDE devices with the connectors properly assigned to the game master / slave / Mother sockets. One device must be in the cable, connect one device to the middle connector on a ribbon cable will cause signaling problems. Devices with Ultra DMA hard disk, preventing these problems signals the reader to realize their full potential. Moreover, because these cables inherently support "cable select", the location of each device in the cable is important. For these reasons, the cable designed to control the positioning is very clear.

10) Remove all spyware from your computer. Use free programs such as AdAware by Lavasoft or Spybot Search & Destroy. When these programs are installed, check for and download updates before searching. All or a program to find can be removed safely. Any free software that requires spyware to run long term, when the spyware component is removed, if the customer really wants the program even if it contains spyware, simply reinstall it. For more information on removing Spyware visit this page from a Web Pro News

11) Remove unnecessary programs and / or items from Windows Startup routine using the MSCONFIG utility. You can do this: Click Start, click Run, type msconfig and click OK. Click the Startup tab and remove all the items you want to start when Windows starts. Not sure what some of the elements? Visit the WinTasks Process Library. It contains known system processes, applications, as well as spyware references and explanations. Or quickly identify them by looking for file names in Google or another search engine.

12) Remove any unnecessary or unused programs from Add / Remove Programs section of Control Panel.

13) Turn off all unnecessary animations, and remove the Active Desktop. In fact, for optimal performance, turn off all animations. Windows XP offers several options in this area. This allows you to do: First, click the System icon in Control Panel. Then click the Advanced tab. Click the Settings button under Performance. Feel free to play with the options offered here, and nothing can change the change in the reliability of your computer - only its capabilities.

14e) If the customer is an advanced user who is comfortable editing their registry, try some of the performance registry settings are available in XP Setup.

15) Visit Windows Update regularly and download all critical updates labeled. Download optional updates at your discretion.

16 th) day of anti-virus client software on a weekly or even daily. Make sure they have anti-virus software installed. Mixing anti-virus software is a sure way to disaster for performance and reliability.

17) Verify that the client has less than 500 fonts installed on your computer. The characters you have, the slower the system becomes. While Windows XP handles fonts much more efficiently than it does in earlier versions of Windows, too many fonts - that is, no more than 500 - are much the tax system.

18) Do not partition your hard drive. Windows XP runs more efficiently on a large partition NTFS. The data is not secure in a separate partition, and reformat is not necessary to install an operating system. The same excuses people offer for using partitions apply to using a folder instead. For example, instead of putting all your data on D:, the unit is placed in a folder called "D drive." You get the same benefits the organization offers a separate partition, but without any degradation of system performance. Also, your place is not limited by the size of the score against him will be limited by the size of the entire hard drive. This means you do not need to resize a partition ever. This task can be tedious and may also cause data loss.

19.) Ensure that the system's RAM to ensure it works correctly. I recommend using a free program called memtest86. The download is a CD or diskette (your choice), which will run 10 extensive tests on the PC's memory automatically after the boot disk you created. Allow all tests to run until at least three passes of 10 tests are completed. If the program finds an error, turn off and unplug the computer, remove a stick of memory (assuming you have more than one) and run the test. Remember, bad memory can not be repaired, only replaced.

20th) If your PC has a CD or DVD, you can visit the drive manufacturer for updated firmware. In some cases, you will be able to upgrade the recorder to a faster speed. Best of all, it's free.

21) Turn off unnecessary services. Windows XP loads a large number of services the client is probably not necessary. You can find the services you can turn your customers, visit the Black Viper for Windows XP configurations.

22) If you are tired of a crash of Windows Explorer and get the rest of the operating system, follow this advice. Open My Computer, click Tools, Folder Options. Now click the View tab. Scroll down to "Launch folder Windows in a separate process" and enable this option. You must be restarted so that it enters into force.

23) At least once a year, open the cabinet and blow all the dust and dirt. While you're there, make sure all the fans run properly. Also inspect the motherboard capacitors for bulging or leaking. For more information on this phenomenon sealed capacitor, you can read many articles on my site.

When some of these proposals would lead to significant improvements in performance and reliability of computers to customers. However, if you want to defragment the disk, remember that the greatest benefit is to make data more accessible, in case of a disk failure.

AdSense Optimization

Adsense Optimization - the practice to maximize clicks and AdSense

income - has a golden rule:

Do not let your AdSense units looking ad!

People do not visit your site ads. They want good content.

If you are catchy commercials stick with colors, images and borders

are easy to recognize as ads - and people are working hard to

avoid them.

Today, visitors are blind to banner ads, pop-ups, tired of the ads and

skeptical of contests and sweepstakes. They know what the ad looks, and the

They know they look the other way.

If you want to win the clicks, Google delivers ads to show

integral part of their contents.

It is a simple policy, but is not as easy as it sounds. If only

would not be so bad mood that many people in forums with complaints about AdSense

low income.

Not that they do nothing about it. That is not

good things.

Let me assure you that once, when I AdSense, which

increased compensation - and therefore yours, if you use the right

techniques seriously.

Make Windows 7 Run on Windows XP

If you still use Windows XP, and then meet

many problems when you try to go directly to

Windows 7, Microsoft has also warned users that the update

from XP to Windows 7 could be a dangerous path.

The truth is that there is no way to get updates directly to

XP to Windows 7 When I try to install Windows 7 on a lower level

XP, you have a security screen, which prevents

do the upgrade.

So here are some simple techniques you can try

try Windows 7

First of all, you can upgrade to XP, Vista Service Pack 1

Windows 7 This is the recommended way to upgrade

Microsoft. However, you may find this technology too complex

and expensive because you have to buy a Vista SP 1

Only the updated version of Windows 7 this is

The surest way you can take.

Second, try a clean install of Windows 7 this

means giving up your XP and its replacement by Windows

7th You must save your files, but since this method

erase all data from your hard drive.

Finally, you can create a dual-boot computer with two operating rooms

systems. Just create a new partition on the hard disk

the disc and clean install Windows 7 on it. As remain

XP, as well as a fully functional beta version of Windows 7 for the test.

But you still have the backup of files and data in general

Accident happens to your computer.

Speed Up BitTorrent Download

The latest file sharing protocol BitTorrent has changed everything when it comes to sharing files. It is a good platform for downloading large files. The exchange of files include movies, ISO images and songs in MP3 format. BitTorrent is best known for illegal file sharing.

Bittorrent system can be slow at times because of heavy traffic. So let us refine the sharing program BitTorrent in a bit.

There are many different BitTorrent client, which you can download. I think the best is BitComet and uTorrent.

Here are some tips to speed up uTorrent Client. Similar can be implemented on any other torrent client you are using.
Step 1: Add a TCP-connections

You must increase the number of TCP connections that are allowed on max.Windows XP Service Pack 2 came with the permitted number of open connections to 10 This is to stop every piece of spyware (in our case even bittorrent client) from take all of your Internet connection. TCP can be connected must be 50 for optimal performance. The best way to increase the maximum number of connections is to apply the patch that is available on this site, A great way to solve this problem is to download this patch.

The trick to the torrent client works very well at times. If you use uTorrent and go to Options menu then Preferences. In preferences go to advanced options. In the advanced options to change the connections net.max_halfopen 80. In the same section change the max half-open TCP connections to 80. Once your done click OK and you're all set. This sets the maximum TCP client for BitTorrent. Now start the download, there is a small difference in download speed. Port forwarding technique is more effective than that.

A third point of interest is that some "Windows Update" turn your refined TCP connections back to 10, it is wise to check it every now and then. You can check this by going (in Windows XP) Start- Control Panel-Administrative Tools> Event Viewer> System ... Look for event 4226 (sort by event).

If there are many daily events, it is likely that the maximum half-open TCP connections is set back to 10. Or you're infected with a nasty spyware .

How To Make Undeletable Or Unreadable Folders

 holding down the Alt key, then typing numbers on numeric keypad (right on the keyboard), you can create special characters. If you hold down the Alt key and press 1, then let go, you got the ASCII character you try a few numbers randomn. This goes all the way up to 255 Open a DOS window and type md (ALT 1 9 4) nogle word. MD is the DOS command to make a directoy, now try to open the folder in Windows, you can not. To open it, type ren (ALT 1 9 4) a few words about words (REN is the DOS command to rename).

How To Create A Partition In Windows 7

Before learning how to create a partition on Windows 7, would be a good idea to learn what it means to partition the hard drive. In fact, the partition of the storage media or memory mass divided into isolated sections. In DOS, you can partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk. Partitioning your hard drive is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. For example, you can reserve a partition for Windows and one for UNIX. In addition, the DOS partition and Windows can improve the efficiency of the disk. This is because the FAT system used by these operating systems automatically assigns cluster size based on the size of the disk: the disk size, the largest cluster. Unfortunately, large groups can result in loss of disk space, called slack space. There is an entire sector of the software industry devoted to building utilities that let you partition your hard drive.

Go to Start - right-click My Computer - Manage

You can see the Computer Management window. Now that storage space is growing, and under click on Disk Management.

Now select the drive to partition. For example, in this case I chose to drive E: When you select the disk partition, right-click on the menu and select Shrink Volume:

You see a window that says the hard disk size and the total amount available for contraction,

You can type the amount you want to reduce (this will be the size of the new partition) It can not be more than the amount available to you and remember that almost 1000 MB = 1 GB After clicking on the decline . Depending on the size and volume to shrink it might take some time. Just be patient and when it's done, you'll see a unallocated space. Select it and right click on it. Then select New Simple Volume. There are some setbacks. Follow the wizard that appears, and fill the partition size. After assigning a drive letter, you can do this by taking one of your choice. On the Formats page, make sure that NTFS is selected, then enter a name for the reader - ie. "anything" and click Next then Finish.

Now you have a new partition on your hard drive!

Auto Login In Windows 7

If you want to speed up your boot process of Windows 7, so you must configure the system for the automatic connection system. This feature is especially designed for computers that are used by one person, then it would not even be a privacy or security. Enabling this feature is quite simple, you just have to write special netplwiz control order. You will see the User Account. Select the user account window, and uncheck "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer". Then click the Apply button, it will open the login window automatically. Enter the password and confirm it. That's it.

Convert Nokia Cellphone Into WiFi Hotspot

Now you can use your Internet connection or 3G phone on multiple computers or laptops with wifi with Nokia phone.There is an application called JoikuSpot which automatically turns your phone into a hotspot.Joikuspot was awarded the best application for Nokia 2010.

This is the free version and premium version of JoikuSpot premium cost euro aid available.The free version of 9.00.The all the features required by a regular user.

The characteristics of the free JoikuSpot

* With the free version of your phone into a WiFi hotspot with the support of open Internet Protocol-based

* New user interface simple Tethering WiFi connects your laptop or via the Internet iPad HotSpot phone with a click

* The Light version is 100% FREE with no time limit. There is no requirement for the commercial premium Ed

trick of light produces the image to convert your Nokia mobile phone into WiFi hotspot

Here is the list of compatible mobile phones JoikuSpot

N8, E7, C6-01, C7, E51, E52, E55, E60, E61, E61i, E63, E65, E66, E71, E72, E73, E75, E90, N78, N79, N80, N81, N81 8GB, N82 , N85, N86, N91, N93, N93i, N95, N95 8GB, N95 Americas N95 8GB Americas, N96, N97, N97, 5530 XpressMusic, 5630 XpressMusic, 5730 XpressMusic, 5800 XpressMusic, 03 C5, C6, E5, X5 , X6, 6710 Navigator, 8800 Erdos, E6, X7

You can download it directly from the store Ovi JoikuSpot or from the official website via the link below

downlod from here- / products / joikuspot_light

Funny Firefox Tricks

Firefox is one of the best browsers, and there are some fun things you can do with your Firefox browser.

Here are some fun tips Firefox

To perform these tricks to open the Firefox browser and copy / paste the following code in the address bar

* Chrome: / / global / content / ads / alert.xul

From here you can see the dance firefox.Your Firefox window automatically pop-up anywhere on the screen.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / browser.xul

This opens the second inside the new firefox tab.So have Firefox in firefox.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / preferences / preferences.xul

This will open the dialog of Firefox in a new tab.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / bookmarks / bookmarksPanel.xul

This will open your Firefox bookmarks in a new tab.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / history / history-panel.xul

This will open your story in a new tab.

* · Chrome: / / mozapps / content / extensions / extensions.xul? Type = extensions

This will open the Extensions tab in the current window.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / preferences / cookies.xul

This will open the "Cookies" within the tab in the Firefox window.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / Preferences / sanitize.xul

This will open the "Clear Private Data" window inside the current tab.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / aboutDialog.xul

This will open the "About Firefox" dialog box inside the tab.

* · Chrome: / / browser / content / credits.xhtml

This opens a dropdown list of names. The sound we have to give thanks to the creation of Firefox.

Create Invisble Folder Without Name In Windows 7 And Vista

Windows 7 and Vista allows you to create an invisible folder without logo and NAME.S you private data and want to hide the look piracy without using external software, then surely you will benefit from this post.

BitLocker encryption utility

In this post we will protect the information placed on it for the first time an invisible folder and then hide it so no one could even accidentally open the folder.So This gives you two hedge.

How to create a folder without name in Windows 7 and Windows Vista?

1. Click the Start button on the taskbar

2. Finding the character table

3. Map of open and click on the coloumn blank

Invisble trick chracter create a folder without name in Windows 7 and Vista

4. Now, Select, and then the Copy button (now you've copied a space)

5. Create a new folder and rename it and press Ctrl + V on your keyboard.

At this point, we created a folder without any name.Now we create a folder without logo.

Create a folder invisible Invisble trick with no name on Windows 7 and Vista

How to create invisible folder on Windows 7 and Vista?

First Right-click the folder you created without a name in the previous step.

2nd Click Properties>> Customize>> Change Icon

3. Now you can get pop-ups of various vacuum icon.Select Icon

Display Invisble trick Create a folder without name in Windows 7 and Vista

4. Click OK

So far, you've created an invisible folder without the logo and the name is not.

Move all your private information in an invisible folder.

How to hide folder invisible to Windows 7 and Vista?

First Right click on the folder invisible

2. Select Properties, and now Hidden check.

So far, you have an invisible folder without your logo, name and hidden.So that only you can access this folder, only to have the information stored in this folder is invisible.

How to open this folder hidden?

1.First make your hidden files, folders visible from folders in the Control Panel.

2.Now Go to the drive (location) on your computer where you created the file without name and press Ctrl + A icon.Now, your file will be highlighted.

Just open it.

Download the BitLocker Drive Encryption, utility by the Google search .

Tips To Improve System Speed

Here are some tips are recommended for any system. No matter if you have 256 MB of RAM and 2 GB of RAM. Check the following tips to remove debris, and the speed of memory in Windows.

Top tips to improve the speed of the first computers

1. Allow the computer to boot completely before opening any application.

Refresh the desktop after the second closing any application. This will remove all unused files from the RAM.

3. Do not put pictures of very large file size as wallpaper. Do not keep a wallpaper at all if your PC is low on RAM (less than 64 MB).

4th Do not clutter your desktop with many shortcuts. Each shortcut on the desktop uses up to 500 bytes of RAM

5. Empty the trash regularly. The files are not really deleted from your hard drive until you empty it.

6th Delete temporary Internet files regularly.

7. Defragment your hard drive once every two months. This frees up a lot of hard drive space, and organize your files so that applications faster.

8. Always make two partitions on your hard drive. Install all large software (like PSP, Photoshop, 3DS Max, etc.), the second partition. Windows uses all available space on the C drive as virtual memory when RAM is full of computers. Keep the C drive as empty as possible.

9th When installing new software to disable the option of having a tray icon. The icons on the use of available RAM, and also slow start your PC. Also disable the ability to start the program automatically when your PC starts. You can disable these options later on also in the menu or options menu in your application.

10th Protect your PC against dust. Dust causes the CPU fan to jam and slow down thereby gradually heating your CPU and affecting the processing speed. Use compressed air to blow dust from the CPU. Never use a vacuum cleaner.

RAM is the working area (desktop) CPU, keep it as clear as possible and empty.

use Gmail space as online storage drive

Recently Google announced that users can now buy more online storage for Google services just by paying a small fee. Why not use this online storage space and outdoor use can be a network drive or hard drive of a computer clean.

Use the storage unit such as Google Google

I will show different ways that you can use your Gmail as your hard drive, also free. You will be able to download (or should I say to copy) files from your Gmail account to your computer as you would from a reader on your computer. You can also use this space to transfer content directly from your computer and save it online in your Gmail account.

1. GMail Drive

Gmail Drive free guide

GMail Drive is a Shell Namespace Extension that creates a virtual filesystem around your Google Mail account so that you can use Gmail as a storage medium.

GMail Drive creates a virtual filesystem on top of your Google Gmail account and you can save and retrieve files in your Gmail account directly within Windows Explorer. GMail Drive literally adds a new drive to your computer for the My Computer folder, where you can create new folders, copy and drag'n'drop files.

Gmail Drive, you can easily copy files to your Gmail account and retrieve them again.

When you create a new file in Gmail Drive, it generates an e-mail messages to your account. E-mail Inbox is the normal file is attached to an e-mail. GMail Drive periodically checks your mail account (Gmail search function), if new files have arrived and to rebuild the directory structures. But basically GMail Drive acts as any other hard drive installed on your computer.

You can copy files to and from the GMail Drive folder simply by using drag and drop as you're used to with the normal Explorer folders.

Because the files cluttering your Gmail inbox, you can create a filter in Gmail to automatically move the files (prefixed with the letters gmailfs subject) to your archived mail folder.

Please note that GMail Drive is still an experimental tool. There are still a number of file system limitations (such as the total file size must be less than 65 characters). Since the tool hooks with Google's free Gmail, changes in the Gmail system may break the tool's ability to function. I can not guarantee that files stored in this manner will be accessible in the future.

Download it here-http: / / / code / gmail.htm

Command Prompt On Right Click

modify the registry:

1. Start- Run

Second type "cmd" and press Enter

Developing the third "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Classes \ Folder \ shell"

4th Right click on the "Shell" and select New> Key

5th Make sure a new key is created when the "shell". Change the name of this key to "Command Prompt"

6. Right click on this new key "Command Prompt" and select New> Key

7. Rename this key "command"

8. Here's what we should have:

9. Double-click the "(default)" text in the right window to bring up the edit box

10. Enter the text in the Value data box:

cmd.exe "% 1"

11. Click OK and close the registry.
Thats It.

Burn A CD Of Without The Software

Windows XP comes with a built in CD copy function that few people realize. Although almost everyone has his / her CD copy software preferred to stick to, it's always good to know about this feature of Windows XP CDR. You will find it very useful when you come to another PC with no CD copy software and you can not install your favorite software for it. This feature allows you to write data or MP3 files on a CD / DVD or erase a rewritable CD / DVD.

If you use a rewritable CD (CD-RW), make sure that the disk is empty. You may need to delete (or "format") before use. For more information on how to erase a CD-RW in Windows XP without using other software.

You should take a CD-R drive in Windows XP.

Insert a CD or a rewritable format recordable CDs (CD-R) disc into the CD drive.

The desktop, double click "My Computer".

Browsing files / folders you want copied to a CD. Select and press "Ctrl-C" to copy.

files / folders appear as temporary files / folders now.

On the left side and select "Write these files to a CD."

Window "CD Wizard" is displayed by default the name of the CD. Change the name of the CD, if you want, then click "Next."

Wizard "Burn CD", began writing the files / folders on the CD.

Once the writing process is complete, the wizard will disappear and the CD-ROM eject.

call someone from his mobile number

call someone from his mobile number
1. Go to http:// www.mobivox.comand register there for free account.

2. When registering, be sure to insert the phone number of victims "Phone" Feild.

3. Complete the registration and confirm your email ID and then log in to your account. click "WebCall direct."

call someone on his / her MOBILE NO - johnplayerstricksandtips

You arrive at the page. In "Enter a number", select your country and also any cell phone number (you can enter). Now you simply press the "Call Now" button to call your friends with its own number.

How To Protect USB Drive From Virus

Have you attached a USB port to a computer and later discovered that the disk is infected with a virus? I certainly faced this situation several times. If you plug your USB drive to the infected computer the virus is transferred to the player in a short time to infect all important documents in the USB drive too, depending on the type of virus that you can lose important data from the USB drive and never give them back. But there is a solution to protect your USB drive against viral infections when plugged computer.If already infected you make your USB drive mode is not writable, the data can not be written, which means that if a computer infected with viruses are transmitted the virus to run, it will not be able to because the USB drive is write protected.


download it from HERE
Thumbscrew a freeware program that allows you to write protect your USB drive, so viruses, malware, Trojans or any other type of infection of the host computer would not be able to write something on your USB. usbNow right-click the System icon tries andchoose Makes USB read-only. This would make the USB drive write-protected, making it completely protected from infection to spread on your disk.

To Improve The Performance Of Windows Defragment The Hard Drive

so you are in front of your computer's slow performance in Windows, it can be fragmented. Fragmentation makes your hard disk do extra work, which can slow down your computer. Defragment disks grouped together scattered information on the hard disk can work more efficiently. Disk Defragmenter is scheduled, but you can also defragment your hard drive manually.

1: Open Disk Defragmenter by clicking the Start button, click All Programs, Accessories, System Tools and click Disk Defragmenter. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or confirmation.

2: Click the Defragment Now.

Disk Defragmenter can take several minutes to several hours to complete, depending on the size and fragmented the hard drive. You can still use your computer during the defragmentation process.

Edit The Registry Directly From The Browser Firefox

from your browser. This trick works Firefox web browser and open regedit to add. After installing this extension, simply choose the right registry keys, and click the button, then open regedit.

 To enter this key directly, select it, then right click & open in regedit

You can download it here:

How To Write Protect USB Flash Drive

If you want to write protect your USB drive, you can do the trick with registry data or batch script. Protect the USB drive, depends on the graft, and you can do it manually or by script. Read below. Mannual way is also given with a batch script


1 - Start - Run - type "regedit" to open the editor regisry

2 - Go to the following: HKey_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetControl

3 - Create a new key called "StorageDevicePolicies"

4 - On the right side, creating a new "DWORD Value" with THR name "WriteProtect" and give "1" data

5 - Then insert the USB flash drive.

6 - Try to delete a file or copy anything to it, you will not be able to do so.

7 - You can disable this function, only for the exchange of information 1 0

Protect Your Messaging And Facebook ID Against Hackers

Never share your password with anyone.

1. Do not use a password that your name, or telephone. or company names ..

2. Uper Use a combination of small numbers and special characters for passwords.

Third Never click on a link is suspected in an email from unknown senders.

4th Never give your password to third party sites for any service.

5th Use different passwords for different accounts.

6. Check the URL of the Web site before you login. EX: Check the URL to log in before to deal with the bank account. Never log into the site as
7. Use a secondary e-mail addresses and phone numbers, secret questions for account recovery.

8. Never use a javascript code in the URL when connecting to any of your email account or any other website. It may be a cookie thief script.

9. use the latest antivirus software and malware with a firewall.

These are some steps you can take to stay safe on the Internet.

Basics Of Search Engine Optimization

However you decide to build your first site, people need to know that you are

there. One of the most important ways to do this is to get a high ranking

a search engine.

There are many different search engines, but only three are really

Important: Google, Yahoo and Microsoft Bing. In chapter 17, I will speak

For more information on how to improve rankings in search engines.

If you want to take a shortcut, many companies

submissions for you and will even optimize your site for you as

top of the standings as possible.

In general, however, the ranking of its search engine depends on a number of

factors. One is the number of sites link to yours. As

Google is worried if many sites on the model of a railway link to your

model train site, being a very good sign that people love

model railroading think your site is good. So they want to offer people

looking for model railways, bringing you lots of free traffic.

Is a model that Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page, based on

university: most researchers refer to a document or a teacher, most

important that the paper or the teacher should be.

Once you have your site up and running, then you will want to convince others

sites to give you the links. You could offer a link exchange with other sites

and you can even set up a page that contains the recommended links, so that

You have a place to put them.

Guest posts on other blogs can also help, as can be, "Lens", a kind of expert

Web page on Squidoo, a site created by a marketing expert and author Seth


The links are only one aspect of SEO itself. Meta Tags - Keywords

anyone can use to find a site like yours - are important, and so

are the names of pages and their titles.

The search engine optimization is a field in itself, a practice that will

run in terms of time and the publisher. There is a reason that many

companies choose to outsource. Initially, however, only focuses on getting your

site in place, fill it with content and monetize AdSense.

Another reason I recommend Wordpress is that many referral sites for treaties

As a matter of Socrates more customers.


1. Update Windows

Microsoft regularly releases free downloads to fix security problems with Windows, Internet Explorer and other Microsoft software such as Office. This guide explains how you can get these important updates.
2. Install A Firewall

A good firewall such as ZoneAlarm will prevent programs from accessing the Internet without your permission, and block access to your PC from intruders. This guide explains how to install and set up a firewall.

3. Check For Viruses

Malicious virus code can infect your PC's system files and damage your important data. This guide explains how to use an anti-virus program to find and remove malicious programs.
4. Remove Spyware

Spyware is malicious code that tracks your movements on the Internet and can even affect your PC's performance. Read Remove Spyware which explains how to get rid of malicious spyware and adware.
5. Browse More Safely

The latest web browsers such as Internet Explorer 9 and Firefox 5 offer security features like pop-up blockers and phishing filters to keep you safe when visiting web sites. These guides explain how to install and use these browsers.

Windows 7 Says Goodbye to Registry

Before Windows 7 was released, was said to

Microsoft will wipe the system registry for its new

operating system.

The record is a collection of data generated by the system that

computer uses to run applications and programs. All

Windows operating systems worked in the registry

to work properly.

According to Microsoft are registered users of its operations

system to identify specific user profiles. It can also be used to

applications run, retrieve the stored data, and delete information previously provided.

How To Get Evaluation Copies Of Windows 7

Windows 7 beta version offered by Microsoft for free.

You can obtain your evaluation copy of Windows officers

7 downloads site.

You can use several methods to get your copy of Windows

7 Beta. The easiest way is to use the download link provided

by Microsoft. However, some users are experiencing

Download the Windows 7 site number.

If you have problems with Windows 7, then you can visit

Download Page Tech Net. A mirror download site is available

Tech on the Net, but you must log in to your account. If you do

The site has an account, simply create one for

Get Windows 7

There are other file sharing sites that offer free download

Windows 7 However, there is no risk of downloading

Windows 7 from these sites. Some copies may be destroyed

and so it does not work when trying to install the operating system

system of the machine.

It is safest for download in Windows 7

Microsoft. So you are guaranteed that the beta program

work after installation. You must act quickly because the free

Evaluation download is only available until 24

January. After this period you will not be able to get an activation code

The key to Windows 7

Before downloading the product, make sure

check if your system meets the Windows

7. Generally, if you have 1 gigabyte of RAM and 128 MB

paper, the system can be optimized to run Windows 7.


Title Tag-What is the name the video?

Start with what you think people will write on Youtube. If you have a baseball swing

instructional video, do not call "my baseball swing November 9." Call it something

such as "How to Hit Home Run Every Time You Connect" or "How to Swing

Baseball bat. "I think you get the picture.

• If you're still stuck, use the key tool of Google. See what kind of phrases people

type in your niche. Getting as close as possible to the exact phrasing of people write


· Consider using Wordtracker as well. Some say they have better statistics than the

adwords tool above, but I still like the Google toolbar

• Note that if people are looking for videos of a well known brand,

person, firm or of the author, they can use that name in their research. If you know a

famous person in your niche, make a video of him to pay attention

back to the YouTube channel. For example, Ben Hogan has been analyzed for decades

One of the best golfers who ever lived. If you make a video course, make the analysis

Ben Hogan swing. So when people see the rest of your videos, your

opportunity to present their own theories about the golf swing.

• Description: There are some things to do in the description.

o First, put the url of your site in the first line, so people can see it. It

Always nice to have links to your site (and if you have seen enough,

some of these people will click through to your website).

Or secondly, to add a brilliant description of the use of keywords. Feel free to write

some pieces here. Youtube shortens the box to the viewers, if you are

should not be so no more typing.

o One thing I've seen work is to refer to a person popular

YouTube in the video description. For example, say you made a

photoshop tutorial. Suppose you knew about 80% of the data, but

Video of John Smith, an expert in Photoshop Youtube, helped get the last

20% of the information. If a sentence description of the words

"Special thanks to John Smith, known as photoshopguy200" videos can

list the name of the handle of his real name. (PS these are the names of


°-tags not as important as the first two things, but make sure you do not form

random tags. "How to Navigate" is much better than "make waves" in terms of collection

labels for use. Tags are a kind of tiebreaker after the description and title. To maintain


· YouTube Channel Name Your goal is to get people not only looking for

Video in your niche, but also in search of you by name. So do the channel name

easy to remember. Say this phrase to yourself: "Go find (insert Youtube

channel) on Youtube. The videos are so funny. "It is a sentence flow? A great name

allow people to talk about your videos easily.

2. Attach a video one of my favorite ways to get more views is to access your youtube

channel, go to 3 or 4 related videos and post a reply to the video. Youtube done

Easy for you to choose one of your downloaded videos. The key, however, is to select a movie

has only a few answers. I often watch videos with 35 video response!

I suspect that this may create a link to the original video (good for SEO), but chances are

no one really watching the video. Watch the videos in your niche with nearly 10,000

points of view. These are the and angles, and these are the ones that are likely to be only a few

Video Response (or not). Here's your chance to get views.

3rd Make your videos, when I say "brand" of your videos, there are two things I'm talking about

here that can improve your status on YouTube. The first is the conventional mark: having

The introduction, for each video, a logo, same style, same manufacturer, the same people. People

begin to trust you on YouTube, if they can come back again and again for quality video.

Another type of label I'm talking about is actually the name of the video. Once

who have received some views using other tactics to rename your video "(Name of

Mark). Name of the video "For example, say you make videos about caring for your car

under the handle "carwashking". After getting some videos on your videos on cleaning,

hair, and otherwise care for your car, change the titles. Now they will read

"Carwash King: How to wash the car."

Network Security

Networks can be classified as network (WAN) or local area networks

(LAN). Safety is a need for both. Computers in a WAN can be thousands of miles away;

computers in a LAN is generally close, as in the same building or facility. Data switch

devices can be used in local area networks, WAN, but not as often.

Internet security is necessary to prevent unauthorized changes to your website. Business

sales-related information products online such as software companies that allow their

paying customers to download updates, need a method to differentiate between paying customers and

visitors not to pay.

Security administrators face the risk that the attacker is able to enter the network. The

Attacks can vary directly affect both hackers and employees with automated attacks

network worms. As an attacker can:

Read access: read or copy confidential information.

• Write access: write a Trojan on the network can infect the system with a virus or a plant

or backdoors. The attacker can also destroy confidential information by deleting it or by writing more


• Denial of service: denying authorized users the normal network services. An attack can consume CPU

time or the bandwidth of the network, or fill in the memory.

The security risks using an Internet server misconfiguration include FTP (File

Transfer Protocol) settings. If access to your FTP server is allowed to set to avoid

unauthorized changes to files.

Must be secure telecommunications link between the transfer of data between the host

computer network systems. One important form of network security is the encryption

preserve the confidentiality of transmitted data. Encryption algorithms can be symmetric (private

key) or asymmetric (public key).

The two encryption methods are popular in the links and end to end security. Old security

traffic independently of each communication, it ensures the messages from the source to

destination. Link layer occurs at the level of communication line a little ', explaining how it moves

nodes. Entry of information from beginning to end sales to the network through its decryption

starting point, providing information on the safety of the interior nodes.

You should have a list of authorized users, generally or specifically:

• Who is authorized to structures?

• When can they come from?

• For what purposes can they go?

There are several tools to help IT managers to implement a security plan, including

encryption tools, packet filtering and routing, and firewalls.

You must have a security policy of the network. Your company must also internal security companies

policy, once you decide how important it is to protect the integrity of the computer system and

the security of your website.

The plan for internal security should be distributed to all who use the facility, written

instructions to the workers the correct use of passwords. Tell them what kind of words that are not

be used as passwords and policies on how passwords should be changed often.

It must be positive before authentication, a user can access a terminal, an online application, or

network, and we recommend that the date and time constraints. Employees must be

access to information on a need to know. Unauthorized use to disable or lock a

terminal. Diskless workstations can provide a safer environment.


Most software packages on the LAN or communication, including encryption and security features. Passwords

included in most packages. However, people generally do not have to choose good passwords or

change them often enough. Hackers can easily breach of security by guessing passwords.

The password strength is significantly reduced when users choose good passwords.

People tend to make some mistakes. To share with others or write them. If

You must enter a password to remember that to be defeated. These are good

Guidelines on choosing passwords:

• Do not choose a password that is a word or a name in English or other. Hackers often

use dictionaries to discover the passwords.

• Avoid patterns, 123456, 12468, ASDF or QWERTY (keyboard).

• Do not use names like Las Vegas or Florida.

• If your system requires that the password contains letters and numbers, not just add a number

of a word. Hackers know that most people choose a word and add digital (eg CAT1

or 1CAT).

• Encourage a mix of uppercase and lowercase. Non-alphabetic characters are also

more difficult for hackers to guess passwords.

• an excellent technique is to use the first letter of sentences to create a password. Esimerkiksi''I

He was born in New York "would give the IWBINY password. Although it is not a word that is easy to

guess it's easy to remember.

• Change passwords on a regular basis, to encourage the planning of information systems will require new

passwords. The system must maintain a history of old passwords and controls to ensure that users

use the same password or choose to have used recently.

Allows users of safety guidelines and to give new users a safety course and how to choose a

correct password. Users must understand why a good password is required. The Symantec Web site,

manufacturers of security software, advice on choosing a good password, so that users can assess

the strength of those who choose:

Passwords provide good protection against casual hackers and amateur hackers but experience can

generally bypass the system password, especially in the UNIX environment. The software is

ready to help new hackers, even if they have a little 'knowledge, to find or guess the password.

The goal of most hackers is to get unlimited access to the computer system, usually by:

• Finding mistakes or errors in the software system

• Enjoy a faulty installation

• The search for human error

Many hackers are authorized users limited access to try to get unlimited access. These pirates

is a valid user name and password and looking for weaknesses in the system.

In most UNIX systems, passwords are stored in an encrypted file. Some systems use a shadow

password file with the original data are stored. Passwords are usually encrypted data

Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm.

The encryption method used is essentially irreversible. While it is easy to encrypt a password is

very difficult, almost impossible to decipher, but hackers can find the password over the

brute force, especially those consisting of only six little letters. Passwords for accounts

that may attract hackers should not, obviously, is in lower case only.

A serious design flaw can sometimes lead to the creation of a "universal" password, which

meets the requirements for registration in the program, without the attacker does not know the correct

password. In one case, for example, a hacker can get a very long password. Could crush

real password, allowing access of pirates.

Modem connections

Each time a user connects to the network via a modem, additional risks are introduced into the

system. These can be minimized by the modem dial-in.

Simply keep a secret phone number is not enough. Many of the hackers who plays in all

phone numbers on a full time code could discover.

In the past, many companies are using a dial-back can reduce the risk of a modem. Nowadays, caller ID

achieves the same goal. In essence, the network allows access only from pre-identified

phone numbers. The obvious disadvantage is that the phone numbers of authorized users must

be known in advance. This makes it difficult for users who travel.

Another way to minimize dial the modem to use hardware encryption devices on both

at the ends of the connection, but these are usually expensive.

Good communication software program has a number of protocol options, enabling

communication between different types of devices. Some programs check the error in the data or

software. Desirable features of communication programs, menus

assist the storage of the phone book, and redial the connection and automatically.

Saboteur Tools

While recent years have developed ingenious methods to preserve safety

many systems is still surprisingly unclear. Saboteurs have on hand a wide variety of

techniques to overcome safety, including:

Trojan Horse: The saboteur places a hidden agenda in the regular company.

The system operates normally when the program collects data hidden programs, change and

files, destroyed data, or causes, including the complete shutdown of operations. Trojans can be

programmed to destroy all traces of its existence after the execution.

Techniques of salami: The author adapts a computer to cause very small changes,

It is unlikely to be discovered, but whose cumulative effect can be significant. For example

attacker could steal 10 cents from the wages of every person and transfer it to your own


Back Door or hatch: the development of a computer program, sometimes the programmers to add code

allow them to circumvent standard security procedures. Once you complete the programming code,

accidentally or deliberately, may remain in the program. Attackers use this add-on code

bypass security restrictions.

Time Bomb / Logic bomb: A code can be inserted into a computer program that causes harm when a

pre-condition occurs.

Masquerade: A computer program was written to simulate a real program, perhaps the display of the journal

and related dialogue. When a user tries to connect, the program captures the user ID and

password and displays an error message prompting the user to log in again. The second time, the

The program allows the user to log on, the user may never know that the first log-in was wrong to seize

access code.

Cleaning System: Generally, when you "delete" the data, that data is not actually destroyed;

Instead, space is available to write the computer later. Scavenger may be an opportunity to

to steal sensitive data that the user thought had been deleted but are actually still available.

Viruses: Viruses are like Trojan horses, except that the code to repeat itself illegal. The virus can

spread rapidly throughout the system to its eradication can be expensive and inconvenient. To defend

against viruses, be careful using the programs from floppy disks or copy software newsletter

tables, or outside the company. Use only discs to verify the sources. The best precaution is to use

commercial antivirus on all downloaded files before using them.

Data Manipulation: The most common and easier to commit fraud is to add or change data

before or during breastfeeding. The best way to determine this is to use control software to investigate transactions

and the review of pathways, which shows additions, deletions and changes to data files. Using the total number of lots,

total number of hash, and the review can also prevent this type of crime.

• A lot of them all is a reconciliation of total daily transactions processed by the micro-and

Manually totals determined by a person other than the operator of the computer. The team must deviations

be studied.

• A total of hash is obtained by adding the values ​​that would not normally be added, such as employees

product numbers and the total has no other meaning than for control purposes.

• A check digit is used to check if an identification number (eg, account number, the employee

number) has been entered correctly by adding an estimate of the identification number and compare

result of a check digit.

Vehicles for road transport: physical transport of road vehicles to reach areas controlled by occurs when an authorized

employee goes through a door with a magnetic card and a worker is not allowed behind

Also entering the premises. Unauthorised use is capable of committing a crime. In

e parasite, an authorized employee leaves a terminal or a desktop computer and unauthorized

individual to use to access it.

Design secure networks *

Architecture of network hardware, software, data link control, standard

topologies and protocols. A protocol regarding the release of the computers and transfer

information. There must be one of the security control measures in each component architecture to ensure

the exchange of reliable and accurate information. Otherwise, system integrity may be compromised.

In designing the network, it is necessary to take into account three factors:

1. The user must get the best response time and performance. Minimize response time

reducing the delay between transmission and reception of information, this is especially important for interactive

sessions between user applications. Average flow to transfer the maximum amount of data

unit time.

2. Data must be transmitted over the network along the way leastcost as long as other factors,

whose reliability is not compromised. The path of least cost is usually the shortest path between

devices with as few intermediate components. Low-priority data can be transmitted through

Telephone lines are relatively inexpensive, high priority data can be transferred via broadband cost

satellite channels.

The third reliability should be maximized to ensure the correct reception of all data. The reliability of the network include

the ability not only to deliver error-free data, but also to recover errors or data loss. The

network diagnostic system should be able to locate problems and can even isolate component

A faulty component from the network.

Media Network

When you select a media network, you must consider:

* Shim et al. Information Systems Management Manual (NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999).

• Technical reliability

• The type of business you are in

• The number of people who need to access data simultaneously

• Number of Microphones

• appearance of existing equipment

• Frequency of update

• Compatibility

• Costs

• Geographical spread

• operating software support and network

• Software Applications

• Extensibility (adding workstations)

• Restricted to a PC (or terminal can be used more cheaply?)

• Easy access to share material and information

• The need to obtain a variety of devices, including other networks and mainframe

• Refinery operations

• Speed

• Storage

• Maintenance

• Noise

• The mechanisms for connectivity

• Network capacity to perform tasks without corrupting the data

Network structures

Network configuration or topology is the physical form of the layout of the network connection

stations. A node is a workstation. A bridge is a connection between two similar networks. Networking

The protocols are the software implementations to support data transfer network. The server is

micro-, or devices in performing such tasks as data storage within the LAN.

Network servers are of several types. A dedicated server is a central computer used only to manage

network traffic. A computer used simultaneously as a local work station is known as non-dedicated

server. In general, dedicated servers offer faster performance of the network, since no

demands of local users, and network drives. In addition, these machines are not likely to

accidents caused by errors of local users. Dedicated servers are expensive, can not be disconnected

the network and use the stand-alone computers. No dedicated servers are higher in terms of price performance

ratio for companies who need occasional use of the server as a local workstation.

The most common types of network topology are:

• The hierarchical topology (also called vertical or tree structure) is interesting for several reasons.

Software to control the network topology is simple and provides a focal point for

control and troubleshooting. However, it also presents potential bottlenecks and reliability problems.

Network properties can be completely lost if there is an error to the next level.

• The horizontal (or bus) topology popular in LANs offer easier movement between devices. This

topology allows all units to receive each transmission, in other words, only one station broadcasts

more stations. The biggest disadvantage is that since all computers share a single channel,

failure results in loss of channel network. One way to avoid this problem is

redundant channels. Another drawback of this topology is that a lack of concentration points

makes it difficult to isolate the fault. A bus network generally requires a minimum distance between

taps to reduce noise. To identify a problem, each element of the system must be revised. A bus topology is

proposed for shared databases, but not too simple message switching. It employs at least topology

to cover a geographic area, while at the same time with full connectivity.

• The star topology is widely used for data communication systems. The software is not complicated, and

traffic control is simple. All traffic coming from the center or center of the star. Although

similar to a hierarchical star topology network, however, is divided into narrower

processing capabilities. Polar routes data traffic to other components. It will also isolate faults

this configuration is relatively simple. Potential bottleneck of a hub can cause serious

reliability problems, however. One way to increase reliability is to establish a redundant backup

center node.

A star network is the best when there is a need to capture and process data at multiple locations with end of day

distribution to various remote users. It is easy to identify errors in the system, since each

communication must go through a controller. Maintenance is easy, if a central computer

the network fails. It has a high initial cost, because each node is connected to the host

computer in addition to the price of the host. Expansion is simple: You only need to run a wire

new terminal to the host computer.

• Ring topology sends the data flow in a circular direction. Each station receives the data and then

send it to the next. A major advantage is that the bottlenecks, such as hierarchical or star

networks are relatively rare. The structure is organized. The main disadvantage is that

The entire network can be lost if the channel between two nodes fails. The creation of a backup channel can be

usually alleviates this problem. Other ways to remove it automatically switches to route traffic

around the failed node, or redundant cables.

A ring network is more reliable and less expensive when there is a communication between a minimum of

terminals. This type of network is the best, when you have multiple users in different locations, which are

access to updated data permanently, because the data transmission may occur many

simultaneously. The ring network allows users to create and update shared databases. With a ring,

However, the greater the probability of error with respect to the star, because of the numerous intervening parties

manage data. In light of this, the information should ring to make the whole cake before it was removed


• The mesh topology is very reliable, although complex. Its structure is relatively safe

bottlenecks and other flaws. Variety of paths to make a relatively easy route to carry

around the faulty components or nodes busy.


WAN and LAN topologies often take different forms. WAN structure tends to be more

irregular. When an organization is usually rented lines at considerable cost, he tries to keep

fully utilized. To do this, data for a geographic area, often conducted through a channel;

irregularly shaped WAN.

The topology of the network tends to be more structured. Since the local network channels in a relatively

homeowners low-cost, usually not related to the maximum use of channels.

In addition, because local networks usually live in one building, the situation is inherently

structured. Local networks are flexible, fast and compatible. They maximize equipment utilization, reduce

processing costs, reduce errors and facilitate the flow of information.

LAN uses ordinary telephone lines, coaxial cable, fiber optics, or other devices such as interfaces. Fiber

to produce a good performance and reliability, but are expensive. LAN performance depends

physical design, supported, and the bandwidth of transmission. Bandwidth of the band

for a channel, it reflects the transmission speed over the network. As more devices are part of a LAN,

transmission rate decreases.

Two or more LANs can be connected. Each node is a group of stations (subnet).

LAN communicate with each other. Benefits of network interface is:

• The total cost of the network are lower.

• the different sub-networks to meet specific needs, by increasing flexibility.

• The cost of sub-networks more reliable and higher can be used for critical activities.

• If one LAN fails, the other still works.

The disadvantages are as follows:

• The complexity is increased.

• Some network functions may not be able to cross the borders of the network.

Communications security

Communication systems used to link data between two or more sites must be reliable, private,

and secure. Communication systems are easily affected by environmental factors, the team

malfunctions and software problems. Attacks on computers that do not require physical access drop

under the control of communications security.

The increasing use of information technology has increased the dependence on telecommunications. All

types of data, voice, video and transferred to the traditional networks. Communication

Security means that the physical connections to networks running at all times.

It also means that during the data transfer failures, delays and disruptions

blocked. Ensure that unauthorized interception, modification, or otherwise

interception of communications.

Six aspects of communications security are:

1. Online Security: Restrict unauthorized access to communication lines connecting the various

parts of computer systems.

2. Transmission Security: prevent the unauthorized interception of communications.

3rd Digital signatures: authentication of the sender or the integrity message to the recipient. A Secure Digital card

The signature process consists of (1) The method to sign the document, making it impossible to counterfeit,

and (2) to validate that the signature is that if it claims to be.

4. Security Encryption: Rendering the data unintelligible, if the transmission is intercepted by

unauthorized persons. Security coding (encryption) of sensitive data is required. When

information should be used, can be decoded. A common method is the DES encryption. For more

security, the double encryption can be used: Encryption is processed with two different keys.

(You can also encrypt files on a hard drive to prevent an intruder to read data.)

5th Issue of security: prevents electromagnetic radiation from electronic devices. These emissions

Wireless communications may be intercepted by unauthorized persons.

6th Technical security: prevention of the use of equipment such as microphones, transmitters, or intercepts

intercept the data transmission. Security modems allow only authorized users access to confidential data

information. The modem can be a degree of security. Different users can be classified into different

safety codes. There can be a password and has memory. Can be integrated into the audit trail,

allowing you to control who has access to private files.

RVA provides communications services at a time and specialized data processing. Usually, a company

no direct control over the security of a truck. However, Van safety has a direct effect on the client

global security.

Communications security can be in the form of:

• Access control to protect against misuse of the network. For example, Kerberos

authentication software business can be added to a security system to verify the existence of a user

encrypt passwords sent over the network. Password and user authentication control other

devices such as SecurID from Security Dynamics (800-SECURID) Basque Data Security and Access

Key II (800-238-2726).

Do not accept a prepaid card, if not by a user of the network. Hackers tend to spend their own

funds. Review of billing data communications and check all connections from one host to another. Check all dial

terminal users. Phone numbers confidential and changed periodically? Control specialists

should attempt to gain unauthorized access to the network to check if the security is working properly.

• Identification, which identifies the origin of a message in the network, digital

signals or legalization.

• Data confidentiality, which prevents unauthorized transmission of information within

communication process.

• Data Integrity, which protects against unauthorized changes (eg addition, deletion) of data at a time

the points of origin and destination, such as cryptographic methods. Anti-virus software should be

installed on the network server and workstation to alert users when the virus tries to enter


• Authentication, which justifies the identification of an original entity or user within the network,

Check that the company is actually one is asserted and the data transferred

is appropriate. Examples of passwords for security checks, time stamping, synchronized with the controls,

Non-repudiation, and multi-way handshake. Biometric identification methods for measuring body

characteristics. The dynamic typing is another possibility for identification.

• Digital Signature, the private key to sign messages.

• Routing control, which inhibits the flow of data to the network elements identified as hazardous, such as relays,

links or subnets.

• Traffic padding, data analysis, and reasonableness.

• minimize interference, eliminating or reducing radar / radio transmission interference. To

a small network, a workstation can be used for backing up and restoring other nodes. Great

network, you can back up multiple servers, because failure could have devastating effects

the entire system. Access to backup files should be carefully monitored.

Token-Ring and Ethernet Networks

Traditional Token Ring and Ethernet networks operate on the principle of diffusion, transmitting information in

units called frames. Each box contains information on a variety of items, including the sender

and the receiver responds. The sender transmits a framework that each receiver can see.

At one point a single computer network, radio and all the other sheep.

A second computer to send, when the first was completed. Even if all the machines on the network can be seen

the spread of the computer chassis, under ideal conditions, the computer whose address is

address of the recipient's body must be able to use the contents of a frame.


Snifters are programs designed to capture certain information. Network managers use to snifters

analyze network traffic and network statistics. The pirates, however, can be used to steal drinks

information such as passwords.

Some actions may be to minimize the risk of sniffing. The most obvious is to limit access. If a hacker can

internet access, snifters can not be used. But because it is often possible to restrict access to

tight networks, alternatives must be considered.

Connected to the versions of the Token Ring and Ethernet networks are able to minimize the smell. When power

LAN, each user has its own switch port. A virtual connection is established with the

destination port for each frame sent. If the destination address in the not mach, the risk

sniffing was associated with significantly reduced. Networks generally more expensive;

networks, are quite rare.

Probably the best way to minimize the risk sniffing is data encryption. It is important that the key does

sent over the network. Traditional details such as time spent to improve encryption


Data flow

The data switched data paths through the network equipment of destinations. For example, these

equipment to route data around the devices not occupied or channels.

Routers at each site are used to communicate with routers on other sites. Routers provide information

on individuals and the resources available in the LAN. They are responsible for directing the flow

information. You can configure the router for some types, such as FTP or Telnet

provide access into or out. It is also possible to enable or disable certain routers

receive data only from certain network addresses.

The path and packet filtering requires considerable technical expertise and time. Most routers

not to provide an audit trail and security, although you should know:

• Who tried to break into the computer system

• How many times it was

• What are the ways they used to try to break into


The transfer of data between computers on the network used in three ways:

• The transfer is simple in one direction. An example is radio or TV broadcast.

Simplex transmission is rare in the networks.

• Half-duplex transmission, which is found in many systems that can flow in both directions, but not both at the

same time. In other words, once a request is transmitted to a device, you should expect a response to


• full-duplex transmission can transmit information in both directions at the same time not

stop-and-wait aspect of the system of half-duplex. Because of its large capacity and fast response

time, two-way communication is common.

Layers of Security

It must be ensured in different layers. As well as opportunities for networking and communications

items should be safe. Make sure you have control of host computers and subnets.

Network traffic can be more subnets, each with its own security levels, according

confidentiality and importance. Each may require security services and the different commands. Note that

safety aspects of each subnet must be distributed to gateways to integrate

safety factors in routing decisions.

Network Backup

Backup feature is particularly important in networks, so that if a computer is not another can take

load. This can be critical in certain areas, such as financing.

Secure Sockets Layer

When Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is enabled (see, a Web browser,

showing a lock or a similar symbol to indicate that data transfer is secure. Another way to know if a

Web site is secure is to look at: par''https Start: / / "instead of" http:// ".

Most Web-based monetary transactions are secured by SSL. Many heavy web / Client Products

support SSL connections. In order to do business on the Internet, you must have access to such a server and

as a digital certificate.

When using SSL encryption will significantly improve the security and confidentiality, does not slow down

InterChange Communications: All information is encrypted and then discharged.

The SSL protocol was developed by Netscape. It acts as a security protocol layered on top

transport protocol underlying connection such as HTTP, Telnet, NNTP, FTP, and TCP / IP. SSL

integrated into the Netscape client and server products.

When building a website, you can enable SSL by configuring a security-enabled secure http (https) process

on the server. Web pages that require SSL access can be specified. Common Gateway Interface

(CGI), the routines can be written on the server side SSL for integration with existing applications.

SSL provides data encryption, integrity checks of data, and provides the server and, if necessary,

client authentication for a TCP / IP. SSL is open and the property. Encryption,

encryption and authentication, are open to applications with SSL.

SSL is widely used to encrypt and authenticate communications between clients and servers

On the Web. Standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has

based on SSL.

You can confirm and authenticate the identity of the SSL server when sending sensitive information, such as

as the number of credit card to the server. The digital certificate is used to prove the authenticity of the key functions

SSL. Anyone with the right software can become a certification authority (CA), but usually

Only some of the trusted certificate that the browser is programmed to accept, VeriSign, Inc. is one of

better known.

The techniques of public key cryptography can be used to verify a server certificate and public ID are

valid. Similarly, a server can verify the client certificate and public ID are valid. Without

public key cryptography, encrypted communication could take place between two or more users

If shared keys. Each user would have to maintain several keys to communicate with

different users.

Public key encryption (see Chapter 4) allows parties to communicate securely without sharing

secret keys. Each party will set up a pair of keys: a private key and public key. The public key is

available to all nodes in a network, is used to encrypt messages for the node. The private key used to

decrypt the messages never leave the node.

TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) provides rules for transport and

routing data over the Internet. Protocols such as Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) use TCP / IP

perform tasks such as displaying Web pages. SSL works in the middle between the TCP / IP

higher level protocols such as HTTP, SSL allows clients and servers to authenticate

themselves and make a secure connection possible.

"Strength" of an SSL connection depends on the level of bits: 40 bits SSL connections tend to be

low, 128-bit SSL connection is extremely strong. 128 bits is about 340 times septillion

(340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) larger than 40 bits.

Currently it is illegal for U.S. companies to export anything at international level over a 56-bit encryption.

Security software companies are trying to overcome these limitations by developing encryption

technology outside the United States.

The SSL protocol includes two subprotocols. SSL record format will be defined

used for data transfer. SSL Handshake Protocol defines how the protocol registration

the exchange of data between client and server when the SSL connection is first established. It is used to

or authenticate the server to the client or the client to the server. It also allows client and server

select encryption algorithms or encryption supported by the client and server.

Public key encryption and symmetric key used by SSL. Although symmetric key

encryption is generally faster than public-key encryption provides better authentication. The common ciphers


• Data Encryption Standard (DES). Triple DES is triple DES, and supports 168-bit

encryption. Its basic dimensions makes it one of the strongest figures supported by SSL.

• Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) for authentication of digital signatures.

• Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA) for key exchange.

• Message Digest (MD5) is used to create digital signatures. It 'is commonly used as a zero.

• RSA, a trade name for authentication and encryption. RSA key exchange is common

for SSL connections, the figure is the most popular for commercial applications.

• Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), secure data transmission.

• Skipjack, a classified symmetric-key algorithm used in the Fortezza-compliant hardware. The

Fortezza encryption system is used by U.S. government agencies, sensitive but unclassified

data. FORTEZZA numbers instead of RSA KEA. FORTEZZA cards and diets are used for client


Performance can be affected when using public key cryptography, which is generally limited to digital

signatures and small amounts of data. Symmetric key encryption such as DES, are generally used to

data in bulk.

The security administrator must decide which cipher to turn plans

nature of the data, the need for privacy and security, and speed of the encryption algorithm. The national

the origin of the parts is another consideration, some data may be used only in the United States and

Canada. So if your organization off the lower figure, you automatically restrict access to

customers in the United States and Canada.

SSL Handshake

The following sequence of events is a typical SSL connection:

• The customer provides the server with its own SSL version number, cipher settings, and other

related to data communications.

• The server provides the client SSL version number, cipher settings, and other

communications information.

• The server sends its certificate, asking the client certificate if necessary.

• The client authenticates the server. If the server can not be authenticated, the client is notified that

encrypted and authenticated connection can not be established.

• The client creates a "pre-master" secret SSL connection, and encrypts with the server

public key. Encrypted pre-master is then sent to the server. You may also ask to sign

and send data, and its certificate to authenticate.

• The session will be terminated if the server can not accept clients.

• Server uses its private key to end the pre-master secret and produce the "master"


• Using the master secret, session keys are generated by the client and server. These symmetrical

keys used to encrypt and decrypt data. The keys and data is not tampered

with between the time sent and time received.

• The SSL session begins once the handshake is complete. The client and server use the session

key to encrypt and decrypt data and verify the data integrity.


Approval of two clients and servers need to encrypt data with a key of a public-private partnership

key pair and decrypt with the other. For server authentication the client encrypts the pre-master

The secret is the server's public key. Its private key alone can not remove the pre-master

secret. This provides reasonable assurance about the identity of the client server.

To authenticate the client-bit random number data using its private key. In other

In other words, it creates a digital signature that can be validated using the public key in the client

certificate if the corresponding private key was used. If the server can not validate

digital signature, the session ends.


SSLRef has developed a software developer tool-kit to help the security features of the TCP / IP

applications using SSL. ANSI C source code is provided for built-in TCP / IP

applications. SSLRef can be downloaded free for noncommercial use only. Although there is no license

SSLRef restrictions, restrictions on exports.


The Kerberos protocol is used in a client / server to authenticate the client to the server

and the server to the client. After confirming the identity, Kerberos authentication can then be used to encrypt data.

Kerberos does not send through any data that could allow an attacker to mimic the user.

Kerberos is available as source code of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

and is also sold by several vendors of commercial software products.

When a client accesses a network server, the client claims to be running on behalf

an authorized user. Without authentication, there is virtually no security. Kerberos

authentication, the client verifies your identity on the server.

In a traditional setting, the user identity is verified by checking the password during the

process connection. Kerberos authentication without the user would enter a password to access

each network service. At least, difficult, and it still does not provide security during

access to services on a remote machine. Without encryption, it would be easy for anyone to intercept

password during transport.

Kerberos eliminates the need for passwords. Instead, the key used to encrypt and decrypt the short

messages and provide a basis for approval. The client to prove its identity, has a ticket

issued by the Kerberos server. Secret information, such as a password, that only

authorized user is known on the ticket.

Kerberos is not effective against attacks, password guessing. An attacker who captures a pair of encrypted

Messages can launch an attack of random passwords, trying to see if the decrypt messages.

Kerberos assumes that the workstations or machines are reasonably safe and only the network

connections are more vulnerable. A trusted path for the password. For example, if the password is

entered into a program containing a Trojan horse (ie, the program was modified to capture

certain information), Kerberos will not give any protection. Furthermore, if the transmissions between

user and the authentication program can be intercepted, Kerberos will not work.

Both user and service network must have the keys stored with Kerberos authentication

server. The user key is derived from a password selected by the user. Network key is selected


Many types of software used by the international community has to Kerberos. Because the United States

restricted export of cryptography, a version of Kerberos is called bone are available at International

users. OF all the routines have been stripped of Bones, which is used to "trick" other programs

to believe that Kerberos is installed.

To use Kerberos, a Kerberos principal must be established. This principle is as a normal account

a machine, some information such as your username and password associated with it. The

information is stored encrypted in the Kerberos database. To be effective, must be Kerberos

An integrated computer system. It protects only the information about the software, which is configured to use it.

The server, if possible, must be physically secure. Ideally, the machine must be dedicated to

running an authentication server. Access is strictly limited to the machine.

Initial password for each user must be registered with the authentication server. Registration

the procedure depends on the number of users. Personal registration is the best control, if

number of users is low. Consider other procedures, such as a record in the program on a trusted system,

when the number of users is very large.

Several tools can improve the security provided by Kerberos. Passwords generated by a single use

The device is particularly useful. Commercial products are available that combine one-time passwords, Kerberos.